Even though you have not read the quoted source you must acknowledge the original source of the information, as well as the work in which it appears, in a parenthetical note. The name, date and page reference of the work in which information originated should appear first, followed by ‘cited’ and then the name etc.
Use ellipses to make a quote say something other than what the author originally intended. Include the sentence’s ending punctuation followed by the ellipsis points when the dots are inserted after a complete sentence. Leave out the spaces before and after the ellipsis points or between them.
Rule: Double quotation marks are used for the first quotation . Single quotation marks are used for a quotation within a quotation . Double marks are used for a further quotation inside that, etc.
MLA format follows the author -page method of in-text citation . This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.
Proper Punctuation – Quotes If you start by telling who said it, use a comma and then the first quotation mark. If you put the quote first and then tell who said it, use a comma at the end of the sentence, and then the second quotation mark. Punctuation always goes inside the quotation marks if it is a direct quote .
Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing.
Three Dots for Missing Text To show readers that part of a quotation is missing , a writer can use three dots (like this ) to replace the missing words. (These three dots are called an ellipsis.) An ellipsis is usually written or in square brackets .
Edited or truncated quotations If the source quotation is truncated , either in the middle or at the end of the quotation , use ellipses to mark the point of the omitted material. Do not use ellipses at the start of the quote , even if material has been omitted there.
‘” When multiple quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations , keep the quotation marks together (put periods and commas inside both; put semi-colons, colons, etc., outside both).
Quoting Someone’s Exact Words “I prefer my cherries chocolate covered,” joked Alyssa. “I have wanted to buy my own truck for a long time,” said Jordan. “I have been saving money for two years. “I guess I should start saving money, then,” replied Jordan, “if I am ever going to buy one.”
If you use a direct quotation from an author, you should: enclose it in quotation marks. give the author, date and page number(s) that the quotation was taken from, in brackets.
In writing, an ” indirect quotation ” is a paraphrase of someone else’s words: It “reports” on what a person said without using the exact words of the speaker. An indirect quotation (unlike a direct quotation ) is not placed in quotation marks. For example : Dr. King said that he had a dream.
What is an indirect citation or secondary source? Include both the original author and the author of the work where quote /idea was found in the in-text reference. Add “as cited in” before the author in the in-text reference.