When using direct quotes in your assignment enclose them in double quotation marks with the footnote number at the end of the quote . If the quote is longer than 30 words start the quote indented on a new line, without double quotation marks .
Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.
When citing an author or source for your end- notes/ footnotes , state the author’s first name before his/her last name. *In your bibliography, reverse the order of the author’s first/last names and pay attention to additional punctuation requirements. Also, in- dent additional lines 1/2 inch from the margin.
How to insert footnotes Place the cursor where you would like the superscript number to appear. Click on “Insert Footnote ” in the “References” tab. The corresponding number will be automatically inserted in the footer ready for you to add the footnote citation. Type in your footnote citation.
When you are referencing the same source in two (or more) footnotes the second and subsequent references should be entered as “Ibid.” and the page number for the relevant footnote . Use “Ibid.” without any page number if the page is the same as the previous reference.
Do not place multiple footnotes at the same point in your text (e.g. 1, 2, 3). If you need to cite multiple sources in one sentence, you can combine the citations into one footnote , separated by semicolons: 1.
Footnotes and Endnotes Footnote :There are two types of footnotes commonly used in writing. Endnote: An endnote is the same as a footnote in that it gives a credit or additional information to the reader. APA: Content notes should use a superscript number that is also used at the bottom of the page with the note.
1 : a note of reference, explanation, or comment usually placed below the text on a printed page. 2a : one that is a relatively subordinate or minor part (as of an event, work, or field) a movement now regarded as a footnote to architectural history.
APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes : content and copyright.
You use ibid for a reference entry when the citation is the same as the previous footnote or endnote. If the page number is different, you include the page number of the new entry after ibid. ibid saves you writing out the full reference again; for example, Y.
When citing the same source in multiple footnotes one after the other, cite the source in full the first time, and then use the abbreviated form for all subsequent citations until another source is cited (p. 759-760). Example: 1.
The word count DOES NOT include the bibliography or citations/references in the text (Harvard Style referencing) or in footnotes or endnotes (Chicago Style referencing). ANY OTHER INFORMATION INCLUDED IN A FOOTNOTE OR ENDNOTE OTHER THAN A REFERENCE OR CITATION WILL BE INCLUDED IN THE WORD COUNT .
A lot of people do add 7–8 footnotes, which might be good if they are extremely relevant. However, even so, 2– 3 footnotes , which is the average, are more than enough per page.
When writing your research paper , you would use a footnote to cite sources of facts or quotations. Footnotes are referenced in the text in the same way as a citation. That is, the referenced text is followed by a superscript numeral, which corresponds to the numbered footnote at the bottom of the page.
Under the Harvard system, sources are cited in short, parenthetical (in brackets) notes within the text, rather than in footnotes or endnotes . The Harvard System is attractive to both authors and readers of academic texts.