You can use a colon before a quotation when the quotation is at least one sentence. Having a quotation that is a full sentence (or more) is far more common than having an introduction that is an independent clause. For example: (The colon is justified because the quotation is a sentence.)
Examples: Smith states, “This book is terrific” (102). Smith remarks, ” . . . Smith writes, ” . . . Smith notes, ” . . . Smith comments, ” . . . Smith observes, ” . . . Smith concludes, ” . . . Smith reports, ” . . .
The colon The colon is often used to introduce a list of items. The first part of the sentence tells you that there will be three things; then the colon tells you “here are the three things”. You can also use a colon to introduce an explanation or a definition of something.
The hard and fast rule is that a colon must ALWAYS follow a complete sentence. Do not use a colon after a sentence fragment, ever. A colon is used after a full sentence or independent clause to introduce something that illustrates, clarifies, or amplifies what was said in the sentence that preceded the colon .
Rule 1: Complete sentence: ” quotation .” (If you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation , use a colon (:) just before the quotation .) Rule 2: Someone says, ” quotation .” (If the word just before the quotation is a verb indicating someone uttering the quoted words, use a comma.
If you use colons in your writing, use them sparingly, and never use a colon more than once in any sentence. Rule 1: Colons can be used to introduce a list, BUT they must follow a complete sentence (independent clause).
The Basics• Always integrate quotations into your text. NEVER just “drop” a quotation in your writing! In other words, don’t let a piece of textual evidence stand alone as its own sentence (unless it’s multiple sentences long). Use your own words to introduce a quotation .
Quotation marks and other punctuation marks In the United States, the rule of thumb is that commas and periods always go inside the quotation marks, and colons and semicolons (dashes as well) go outside: “There was a storm last night,” Paul said.
Quotation marks are ALWAYS used in pairs, one at the beginning of the quoted text and one at the end. The same rule applies to titles and words used in a special sense or for emphasis. Use double quotation marks (“”) around a direct quote . A direct quote is a word- for-word report of what someone else said or wrote.
Colons and semicolons can be used in the same sentence , but they are each used for different purposes. In this example, the colon is used to introduce the cities.
Semicolons should introduce evidence or a reason for the preceding statement; for example, this sentence appropriately uses a semicolon . A colon , on the other hand, should be used for a stronger, more direct relationship. It should provide emphasis, an example, or an explanation.
Although it’s not incorrect to use a period, a colon is conventionally used after “as follows sentences instead of just one phrase or clause (6.63, “Lowercase or Capital Letter after a Colon ”). first word following it is capitalized.
Do not use a colon in a complete sentence after phrases such as “such as,” “including,” and “for example.” Because phrases like these already indicate to the reader that a list of examples will follow, there is no need to introduce them with a colon , which would merely be redundant.
Examples of Semicolons : Joan likes eggs; Jennifer does not. The cat slept through the storm; the dog cowered under the bed. Semicolons are also used in a sentence when something stronger than a comma is needed.
The colon is used to separate two independent clauses when the second explains or illustrates the first. In such usage, the colon functions in much the same way as the semicolon. As with the semicolon, do not capitalize the first word after the colon unless the word is ordinarily capitalized.