Hobbes argues that the state of nature is a miserable state of war in which none of our important human ends are reliably realizable. Happily, human nature also provides resources to escape this miserable condition.
“No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” “The first and fundamental law of Nature, which is, to seek peace and follow it.”
It is a man’s right of nature to be free to do what he considers good for him, and do that which will enable him to stay alive. Hobbes states in the Leviathan that certain laws of nature must be obeyed, “but they cannot be relied on in the state of nature ” (Gough, 1957: 106).
“The life of man ” in the state of nature , Hobbes famously writes, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Being rational, humans will naturally seek to be rid of fear.
Here’s how Hobbes defines a law of nature : “a precept or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same; and to omit that, by which he thinketh it may be best preserved” (Chapter 14, sect. 3 , p. 79).
According to Hobbes , there are nineteen Laws .
solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. What are the disadvantages of living in a time of war , according to Hobbes ? In war there is no law; and where there is no law, there can be no injustice.
political philosophy In Leviathan (1651), Hobbes argued that the absolute power of the sovereign was ultimately justified by the consent of the governed, who agreed, in a hypothetical social contract, to obey the sovereign in all matters in exchange for a guarantee of peace and security.
Hobbes believed that a government headed by a king was the best form that the sovereign could take. Placing all power in the hands of a king would mean more resolute and consistent exercise of political authority, Hobbes argued.
Hobbes’s first law of nature , “to seek peace, and follow it”, or “that every man ought to endeavour peace, as far as has hope of obtaining it” is easily inferred as “a precept, or general rule of reason”.
Hobbes believed that human beings naturally desire the power to live well and that they will never be satisfied with the power they have without acquiring more power. After this, he believes, there usually succeeds a new desire such as fame and glory, ease and sensual pleasure or admiration from others.