According to Locke : In the state of nature, liberty consists of being free from any superior power on Earth. People are not under the will or lawmaking authority of others but have only the law of nature for their rule.
John Locke proposes his theory of property rights in The Second Treatise of Government (1690). The theory is rooted in laws of nature that Locke identifies, which permit individuals to appropriate, and exercise control rights over, things in the world, like land and other material resources.
Chapters 3-4: Of the State of War and Of Slavery By this reasoning, one can justifiably kill a thief since an attack on one’s property represents a threat to one’s liberty .
Perhaps the most influential writtings came from English philosopher John Locke. He expressed his view that government is obligated to serve the people, by protecting life, liberty, and property . Also, he went about limiting power of the government. He favored representative government and a rule of law.
The right to private property is the cornerstone of Locke’s political theory, encapsulating how each man relates to God and to other men. Locke proposes that because all men own their bodies completely, any product of their physical labor also belongs to them.
Among these fundamental natural rights, Locke said, are “life, liberty, and property.” Locke believed that the most basic human law of nature is the preservation of mankind. To serve that purpose , he reasoned, individuals have both a right and a duty to preserve their own lives.
Locke favored a representative government such as the English Parliament , which had a hereditary House of Lords and an elected House of Commons. But he wanted representatives to be only men of property and business. Consequently, only adult male property owners should have the right to vote.
There are many different versions of the notion of a social contract . John Locke’s version of social contract theory is striking in saying that the only right people give up in order to enter into civil society and its benefits is the right to punish other people for violating rights.
According to Locke , the main purpose of government is to protect those natural rights that the individual cannot effectively protect in a state of nature.
His political theory of government by the consent of the governed as a means to protect the three natural rights of “life, liberty and estate” deeply influenced the United States’ founding documents. His essays on religious tolerance provided an early model for the separation of church and state.
” Life , Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” is a well-known phrase in the United States Declaration of Independence. The phrase gives three examples of the unalienable rights which the Declaration says have been given to all humans by their creator, and which governments are created to protect.
John Locke (1632–1704) is among the most influential political philosophers of the modern period. In the Two Treatises of Government, he defended the claim that men are by nature free and equal against claims that God had made all people naturally subject to a monarch.
In his Second Treatise of Government , Locke identified the basis of a legitimate government . According to Locke , a ruler gains authority through the consent of the governed. The duty of that government is to protect the natural rights of the people, which Locke believed to include life, liberty, and property.
John Locke changed and influenced the world in many ways. His political ideas like those in the Two Treatises of Government, (such as civil, natural, and property rights and the job of the government to protect these rights), were put into the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution.