When omitting words from the middle or end of a quoted sentence, indicate with an ellipse (…) where the omission occurs. When they occur at the end, place a period after the last word and then insert your ellipse.
When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation , square brackets—[ ]—are placed around the change. The brackets, always used in pairs, enclose words intended to clarify meaning, provide a brief explanation, or to help integrate the quote into the writer’s sentence.
If you omit a word or words from a quotation , you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space.
How to paraphrase in five steps Read the passage several times to fully understand the meaning. Note down key concepts. Write your version of the text without looking at the original. Compare your paraphrased text with the original passage and make minor adjustments to phrases that remain too similar.
The sic you see in quoted text marks a spelling or grammatical error. It means that the text was quoted verbatim, and the mistake it marks appears in the source. It’s actually a Latin word that means “so” or “thus.”
When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text. However, also insert the term sic in italics directly after the mistake, and enclose it in brackets. Johnson says of the experience, “It’s made me reconsider the existence of extraterestials [sic].”
Contextualizing and Integrating Quotations Exercise Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon. Use an introductory or explanatory phrase, but not a complete sentence, separated from the quotation . Make the quotation a part of your own sentence without any punctuation between your own words and.
Use square brackets to indicate changes to a quotation , such as adding words, explanations, or emphasis. To “emphasize a word or words in a quotation , use italics.
Whenever you want to leave out material from within a quotation, you need to use an ellipsis, which is a series of three periods, each of which should be preceded and followed by a space. So, an ellipsis in this sentence would look like . . .
In general, it is not necessary to use an ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quotation, even if you are quoting from the middle of a sentence. An exception is that you should include an ellipsis if, to prevent misinterpretation, you need to emphasize that the quotation begins or ends in midsentence.
When you create a quotation , you must copy it exactly as it appears in the original. The ellipsis mark (three evenly spaced periods) is useful for signaling that you ‘ve omitted material from a quotation . Use brackets (sometimes known as square brackets ) to insert your own words into a quotation for clarifica- tion.
While paraphrases do not require quotation marks, they do require citations. Be sure to change both the words and word order of the original source in order to avoid plagiarism.
Sometimes you only need to paraphrase the information from one sentence. Here are some examples of paraphrasing individual sentences: Original: Her life spanned years of incredible change for women as they gained more rights than ever before. Paraphrase : She lived through the exciting era of women’s liberation.
Key Resource: The 4 R’s –A Paraphrasing Strategy Review the graphic below that explains the 4 R’s : Read, Restate, Recheck, and Repair and use the attached graphic organizer to help you practice paraphrasing by using this strategy.