When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion, like this: This is a paraphrase (Smith 8). This is a paraphrase (“Trouble” 22). Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation .
In order to make it clear that quoted or paraphrased information is not your own work, cite every quotation and every new instance of paraphrased information in your paragraphs . Each citation to a quotation should include a parenthetical page number, as well as the author of the quoted text and year of publication.
It is best to introduce the quotation or paraphrase with a signal phrase which includes the author’s name and provides context for the reader. That is, you must give the reader enough information to understand who is being quoted or paraphrased and why.
Sometimes you only need to paraphrase the information from one sentence. Here are some examples of paraphrasing individual sentences: Original: Her life spanned years of incredible change for women as they gained more rights than ever before. Paraphrase : She lived through the exciting era of women’s liberation.
Be sure to use quotation marks and cite your source. Paraphrase : You are paraphrasing when you take someone else’s words and rewrite them in your own words without altering the meaning or providing interpretation. Always cite your paraphrase .
You definitely need to include an in-text citation for paraphrased information. If your entire paragraph is paraphrase of info you got from one of your sources, just put the citation at the very end, like you said. You don’t have to mention the author or do an in-text citation for every sentence.
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase , or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).
Instead, when paraphrasing a key point in more than one sentence within a paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged.
Another way to introduce a critic’s words is to use a descriptive verb, followed by a comma. Smith states, “This book is terrific” (102). Smith remarks, ” . . . Smith writes, ” . . . Smith notes, ” . . . Smith comments, ” . . . Smith observes, ” . . . Smith concludes, ” . . . Smith reports, ” . . .
Paraphrasing Give the author of the material credit by ” documenting” or ” citing” your sources (terms which mean you credit your source). Give credit whenever you use a direct quote by placing it in quotation marks and giving the author credit .
Paraphrases and summaries do not use quotation marks and require the author’s last name and year of publication.
Key Resource: The 4 R’s –A Paraphrasing Strategy Review the graphic below that explains the 4 R’s : Read, Restate, Recheck, and Repair and use the attached graphic organizer to help you practice paraphrasing by using this strategy.
The process in paraphrasing is very simple. Always remember that there are three important elements contained in a paraphrased question or statement. One is it should have similar meaning or the same thought as the original question . Next, it must elicit the same answer as the original question .
As you recall, Thinking Collaborative teaches three levels of paraphrasing – acknowledging, organizing, and abstracting. We acknowledge non-verbally with head nods, eye contact, etc., when listening.