When a source has no known author , use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites ) and provide a page number if it is available.
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL . If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
Use the author’s name and year for in-text parenthetical citations . APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website . The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence.
Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author , cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.
Bear in mind: The in-text citation is very simple: (Author, year) – it generally only consists of the author’s last name, a comma, and the year of publication. The in-text citation has only the author’s last name – no initials! Always include the year of publication. 6 дней назад
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.
When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote , rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation , or, for
When using APA format , follow the author-date method of in-text citation . This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example , (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
Citing a quote in APA Style In a parenthetical citation, you place all the information in parentheses after the quote . In a narrative citation, you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote .
To indicate that you are citing a comment, follow the name with a period and then the words Comment on, followed by the title of the source (for example, the name of the article) in quotation marks. This is then followed by the title of the website in italics, and the publisher, if applicable.
Italicize titles if the source is self-contained and independent. Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized. Place titles in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. Articles, essays , chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks.
Basic rules Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page . Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
When a source does not indicate the publisher or the date of publication, supply as much of the information as you can, enclosing it in square brackets to show it did not come from the source. If a date is approximate, put after circa. Do not use n.d. unless your professor asks you to do so.
Always cite the PDF based on what the source in the file actually is. In MLA formatting, you can change the medium description to “ PDF file.” In an APA citation , cite a PDF the same way you would cite a webpage, and include the PDF link as the URL.