When a source has no known author , use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites ) and provide a page number if it is available.
What is an indirect citation or secondary source? Include both the original author and the author of the work where quote /idea was found in the in-text reference. Add “as cited in” before the author in the in-text reference.
When you quote or paraphrase from a source (book, article, or webpage) in your paper, you need to insert a parenthetical citation . This citation typically consists of the author’s name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. “This is a direct citation ” (Chapman, 2019, p. 126).
Citations are placed in the context of discussion using the author’s last name and date of publication. When a work has no identified author , cite in text the first few words of the article title using double quotation marks, “headline” style capitalization, and the year.
When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote , rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation , or, for
In writing, an ” indirect quotation ” is a paraphrase of someone else’s words: It “reports” on what a person said without using the exact words of the speaker. An indirect quotation (unlike a direct quotation ) is not placed in quotation marks. For example : Dr. King said that he had a dream.
Give the secondary source in the reference list; in text, name the original work and give a citation for the secondary source . For example , if Allport’s work is cited in Nicholson and you did not read Allport’s work, list the Nicholson reference in the reference list.
A direct quote (or direct quotation) is the exact words taken from an original source and used in a second piece of writing . An indirect quote (or indirect quotation) is the idea or fact taken from an outside source and used in a second piece of writing .
If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation . This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper .
For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, otherwise provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source.
Basic rules Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page . Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
Include information in the following order: author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) year (date created or last updated) page title (in italics) name of sponsor of site (if available) accessed day month year (the day you viewed the site) URL or Internet address (pointed brackets).
When a source does not indicate the publisher or the date of publication, supply as much of the information as you can, enclosing it in square brackets to show it did not come from the source. If a date is approximate, put after circa. Do not use n.d. unless your professor asks you to do so.