When a source has no known author , use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites ) and provide a page number if it is available.
Unknown Author If the work does not have an author , cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
Using In-text Citation For direct quotations , include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1).
No Author . If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and the continue with other citation details. Note: an author /creator won’t necessarily be a person’s name.
When citing a web site in the Reference List, provide as much as possible of the following information: Author’s name (if available). Date of publication or update in parentheses (if available). Title or description of document. Title of complete work (if relevant), in italics or underlined. URL.
Include information in the following order: author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) year (date created or last updated) page title (in italics) name of sponsor of site (if available) accessed day month year (the day you viewed the site) URL or Internet address (pointed brackets).
In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. “Here’s a direct quote ” (Smith 8). If the author’s name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks.
Use “ Anonymous ” as the author name in the corresponding reference entry as well. If the work you are referencing does not name an author (which is different than Anonymous being the identified author ), use the first few words of the title instead (APA, 2020, p. 264).
When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote , rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation , or, for
If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
If using a direct quote from a source, include the Author’s family name, the year of publication and the page number in round brackets and place single quotation marks around the direct quote . Alternatively, the Author’s name can be used anywhere within the sentence.
The following general steps address how to properly integrate a quotation into an essay . Step 1: Introduce the Author of the Quotation . Step 2: State the Quotation . Step 3: Summarize the Quotation . Step 4: Analyze the Quotation . Step 5: State the Quotation’s Relevance to Your Argument.
Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation . Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter.
Using In-text Citation MLA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers , do not include a number in the parenthetical citation : (Smith).
If you wish to cite a web resource that does not include page numbers , you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation: A paragraph number , if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document: e.g. British Medical Association (2014, para.