Parentheses within a quotation enclose material that is part of the quotation . Brackets are the only mark of punctuation that indicate that the enclosed material is not part of the quotation .
The rule is, punctuation (period or question marks ) go inside quotes but outside of parentheses .
Rule: Use single quotation marks inside double quotation marks when you have a quotation within a quotation . Example: Bobbi told me, “Delia said, ‘This will never work. ‘ ” Notice that what Delia said was enclosed in single quotation marks.
When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation , square brackets—[ ]—are placed around the change. The brackets, always used in pairs, enclose words intended to clarify meaning, provide a brief explanation, or to help integrate the quote into the writer’s sentence.
The difference between a ‘ bracket ‘ and a ‘ parentheses ‘ can be a bit confusing. Generally, ‘ parentheses ‘ refers to round brackets ( ) and ‘ brackets ‘ to square brackets [ ]. Usually we use square brackets – [ ] – for special purposes such as in technical manuals.
Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies or is used as an aside. Example : He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand the question. If material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses . Example : He gave me a nice bonus ($500).
Parentheses ( ) are used to enclose nonessential or supplemental information in a sentence. Parentheses are always used in pairs; you must have both an opening and a closing parenthesis . In formal academic writing , it is a good practice to use parentheses sparingly.
Put the exclamation point inside the closing quotation marks if it applies to the words enclosed by the quotation marks . If the exclamation point applies to the sentence as a whole, then place it at the very end.
The Basics• Always integrate quotations into your text. NEVER just “drop” a quotation in your writing! In other words, don’t let a piece of textual evidence stand alone as its own sentence (unless it’s multiple sentences long). Use your own words to introduce a quotation .
Quoting a portion of dialogue : If you quote something a character says, use double quotation marks on the outside ends of the quotation to indicate that you are quoting a portion of the text. Use single quotation marks inside the double quotation marks to indicate that someone is speaking. “‘Thou art not my child!
‘” When multiple quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations , keep the quotation marks together (put periods and commas inside both; put semi-colons, colons, etc., outside both).
Proper Punctuation – Quotes If you start by telling who said it, use a comma and then the first quotation mark. If you put the quote first and then tell who said it, use a comma at the end of the sentence, and then the second quotation mark. Punctuation always goes inside the quotation marks if it is a direct quote .
Put commas and periods within quotation marks , except when a parenthetical reference follows. He said, “I may forget your name, but I never forget a face.” Place the punctuation outside the closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the whole sentence.
Paraphrasing tips Start your first sentence at a different point from that of the original source. Use synonyms (words that mean the same thing) Change the sentence structure (e.g. from active to passive voice) Break the information into separate sentences.