When using APA format , follow the author-date method of in-text citation . This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In your in-text citation identify the primary source , and include in parentheses “(as cited in Author, Date)”. The reference list will only list the secondary source . In the examples below, Smith’s study is the primary source and Queenan et al. is the secondary (“as cited in”) source .
If a document was authored by “ Anonymous ”, instead of the author’s last name, cite “ Anonymous ” in the citation ( American Psychological Association [ APA ], 2020, p. 265). For example, ( Anonymous , 2015, p. 42).
Using In-text Citation For direct quotations , include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1).
Citing a quote in APA Style In a parenthetical citation, you place all the information in parentheses after the quote . In a narrative citation, you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote .
MLA citing format often includes the following pieces of information, in this order: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of Source .” Title of Container, other contributors, version, numbers, publisher, publication date, location.
If you are directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.”). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
No, quotes from historical figures which are found in secondary sources are not considered primary sources . The author of the book has processed the quotation , selecting it from the original source .
Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
How do I order works that have no author? If the author of a work is unknown , order the reference by its title. Disregard the words “A”, “An”, and “The” at the beginning of the title. Read more about alphabetizing the APA reference page.
Website with no author and no date Bibliographic references are double-spaced and indented half an inch after the first line. If there is no author, the article title comes first. If there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d. It is no longer necessary to include the date of retrieval.
Use double quotation marks for title of an article , a chapter, or a web page. Use italics for title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report. Two or more authors: Within the text use the word and. If the authors’ names are within parentheses use the & symbol.
A Work by Three or More Authors List only the first author’s name followed by “et al.” in every citation , even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only “al” should be followed by a period.
When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote , rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation , or, for