Use square brackets to indicate changes to a quotation , such as adding words , explanations, or emphasis. To “emphasize a word or words in a quotation , use italics.
Yes. The subject of the quote doesn’t have any bearing on whether or not to use quote marks . You should use quotation marks when you are quoting someone word -for- word , like this: Generally, when you quote someone else, you use quotation marks to indicate that those are the exact words of the speaker.
You can edit quotes by changing or adding words in order to: Integrate quoted text into your own writing. Clarify the meaning of something. Correct an error in the original text.
When omitting words from the middle or end of a quoted sentence, indicate with an ellipse (…) where the omission occurs. When they occur at the end, place a period after the last word and then insert your ellipse. In either case, take care that the wording remains grammatically correct.
When writers insert or alter words in a direct quotation , square brackets —[ ]—are placed around the change. The brackets , always used in pairs, enclose words intended to clarify meaning , provide a brief explanation, or to help integrate the quote into the writer’s sentence.
Some punctuation marks at the end of a quotation may be changed to fit the syntax of the sentence in which the quotation appears, as long as meaning is not changed (e.g., it might alter meaning to change a period to a question mark, depending on how the sentence is written).
Perhaps it should go without saying, but quotation marks are for quoting people. Quoting doesn’t mean summarizing or paraphrasing; it means repeating exactly what someone said.
Scare quotes (also called shudder quotes , sneer quotes , and quibble marks) are quotation marks that writers place around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in an ironic, referential, or otherwise non-standard sense.
Do not add quotation marks. Introduce the quote using your own words followed by : a colon – if you have written a complete sentence – or a comma if you use a phrase such as ‘according to’ along with the authors name. End the quote with a fullstop and the footnote number.
If “incorrect spelling, grammar, or punctuation in the source might confuse readers, insert the word ‘[sic]’, italicized and bracketed, immediately after the error in the quotation ” (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 274). For example, “they made they’re [sic] lunches.”
Yes, you can leave out words you deem unnecessary in a quotation , but you can ‘t take out words that will change its meaning.
If necessary, change the tense in your quote to match that of your paper. Use brackets to indicate that you changed the tense . For example, in this quote the author changed the past tense “felt” to present tense “feels” to fit with her present tense literary analysis paper.
Three Dots for Missing Text To show readers that part of a quotation is missing , a writer can use three dots (like this ) to replace the missing words. (These three dots are called an ellipsis.) An ellipsis is usually written or in square brackets .
Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing.
Shortening a quote If some parts of a passage are redundant or irrelevant, you can shorten the quote by removing words, phrases, or sentences and replacing them with three dots, called an ellipsis. Most style guides specify that there should be a space before, after, and between each of the dots.