The phrase nasty , brutish, and short is a quote from a text that characterized human life without a proper, legitimate government as horrible. People sometimes use this expression to describe other bad things.
Thomas Hobbes In this state, every person has a natural right to do anything one thinks necessary for preserving one’s own life, and life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (Leviathan, Chapters XIII–XIV).
Thomas Hobbes Hobbes reasoned that this world of chaos created by unlimited rights was highly undesirable, since it would cause human life to be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”.
So it is their natural right, which helps them to survive, that actually puts them in a situation of “ continual fear ” and where they are in “ danger of violent death” (Hobbes, 1946: XIII, 82). Psychologically, survival is not an option.
A ” Law of Nature ” is a general rule that is discovered through reason. Such a law affirms human self-preservation and condemns acts destructive to human life. Having described the horrors of the state of nature , in which fear reigns supreme, Hobbes concludes that natural man, in order to preserve life, must seek peace.
Hobbes is famous for his early and elaborate development of what has come to be known as “social contract theory ”, the method of justifying political principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be made among suitably situated rational, free, and equal persons.
The state of nature in Locke’s theory represents the beginning of a process in which a state for a liberal, constitutional government is formed. Locke regards the state of nature as a state of total freedom and equality, bound by the law of nature.
For instance, Locke perceives the law of nature to preside over the state of nature , in which individuals and their properties are not necessarily in constant danger. Conversely, Hobbes’s state of nature is the state of war, which cause men to come to the conclusion that they must always be in pursuit of peace.
The state of nature , for Rousseau , is a morally neutral and peaceful condition in which (mainly) solitary individuals act according to their basic urges (for instance, hunger) as well as their natural desire for self-preservation.
The Social Contract is the most fundamental source of all that is good and that which we depend upon to live well. Our choice is either to abide by the terms of the contract , or return to the State of Nature, which Hobbes argues no reasonable person could possibly prefer.
Most Common Objection : Based on a Historical Fiction Objection : “The Social Contract isn’t worth the paper its not written on.”
The social contract is an implicit agreement among self-interested, rational agents. This seems to imply we have no duties to beings who are not able to participate (even implicitly) in the contract . Examples : nonhuman animals, those with mental disabilities.
60 Colours/2 Sizes. Nasty Brutish Short. Political Philosophy. “No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” So said Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was a philosopher from England. His most famous book is Leviathan (1651).
State of Nature The ” natural condition of mankind” is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature . The state of nature is a “war of all against all,” in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power.