Footnote or endnote numbers in the text should follow punctuation, and preferably be placed at the end of a sentence. When citing the source for a quotation , the number should be placed at the end of the quotation and not after the author’s name if that appears first in the text.
Quotations are a key part of almost every historical paper, but they must be used carefully. Footnotes and endnotes are the primary means of historical citation, not just for quotations , but for any material, ideas, facts, concepts, or theories not your own.
Citing a quote in APA Style In a parenthetical citation , you place all the information in parentheses after the quote . In a narrative citation , you name the author in your sentence (followed by the year), and place the page number after the quote .
In Chicago style , footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text. To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase . Citation numbers should appear in sequential order. Each number then corresponds to a citation , a footnote or to an endnote.
Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example , say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph.
How to insert footnotes Place the cursor where you would like the superscript number to appear. Click on “Insert Footnote ” in the “References” tab. The corresponding number will be automatically inserted in the footer ready for you to add the footnote citation. Type in your footnote citation.
When you are referencing the same source in two (or more) footnotes the second and subsequent references should be entered as “Ibid.” and the page number for the relevant footnote . Use “Ibid.” without any page number if the page is the same as the previous reference. Example footnotes : 1.
You use ibid for a reference entry when the citation is the same as the previous footnote or endnote. If the page number is different, you include the page number of the new entry after ibid. ibid saves you writing out the full reference again; for example, Y.
Basics Block quotations start on their own line. The entire block quotation is indented 0.5 inches, the same as the indentation for a new paragraph, and is double spaced. Block quotations are not surrounded by any quotation marks. The punctuation at the end of the block quotation goes before the citation .
Quotations within a Quotation Use single quotation marks to enclose quotes within another quotation . The reporter told me, “When I interviewed the quarterback, he said they simply ‘played a better game.
For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author’s last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
In-text citations : Author- page style MLA format follows the author- page method of in-text citation . This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page .
Footnotes are listed at the bottom of the page on which a citation is made. A numeral is placed in the text to indicate the cited work and again at the bottom of the page in front of the footnote . A footnote lists the author, title and details of publication, in that order.
Style Guides When a footnote must be placed at the end of a clause,1 add the number after the comma. When a footnote must be placed at the end of a sentence, add the number after the period. Numbers denoting footnotes should always appear after punctuation, with the exception of one piece of punctuation3—the dash.
Chicago Citation Style : Quoting and Paraphrasing Direct Quotes . √ Incorporate text less than 100 words into your text. √ Place the quote in quotation marks . √ Include page reference in parenthesis after quotation mark. √ If quotation ends the sentence place parenthetical reference at end including page reference.